Lesson Five – Getting To The Con


Vocabulary

le I
yuloma wing
mazh car; automobile
shin two
 
-nan a morpheme meaning “by means of”; it indicates what is used to do something
-wáan a morpheme meaning “the reason for which something is done”
wi an evidential meaning “The reason I claim that what I’m saying is true is because it’s self-evident; everybody can see that it’s true, or everybody is in agreement that it’s true.”

Sentences

1. Sha: “Bíi ril sháad le buzhedi mazhenan wa.”

“I’m going to the con by car.”

2. Athid: “Bíi ril sháad le buzhedi mazhenan wa.”

“I’m going to the con by car.”

3. Thad: “Bíi ril sháad le buzhedi mazhenan wa.”

“I’m going to the con by car.”

4. Óowamid: “Bíi ril sháad ra le buzhedi mazhenan wa. Ril sháad le buzhedi yulomanan wa.”

“I’m not going to the con by car. I’m going by wing.”

Note: When you have sentences like this one right after the other from the same speaker, the Speech Act word doesn’t have to be repeated in every sentence. It would always be correct to repeat the Speech Act word, which means that if you’re not sure what to do it’s safe to include it; but it doesn’t have to be there.

5. Sha: “Báa bebáawáan?”

“Why?” That is: “For what reason?”

6. Óowamid: “Bíi ril thi ra Sha yulomath wi. Thad ril thi ra yulomath wi. Athid ril thi ra yulomath wi. Ril thi le yulomath shin wi!”

“Sha doesn’t have a wing. Thad doesn’t have a wing. Athid doesn’t have a wing. I have two wings!”

Láadan Grammar Facts

  1. To make a sentence negative, put “ra” right after the verb.

    For example: “Bíi ril sháad le buzhedi wa” means “I’m going to the con”; “Bíi ril sháad ra le buzhedi wa” means “I’m not going to the con.”

  2. The word for “why” — “bebáawáan” — has three parts.

    1. It starts with the pronoun “be” for “it,” which refers to the reason why.
    2. Next comes “-báa-,” which marks it as a question word.
    3. It ends with a morpheme [called a “case marker”] that makes its role in the sentence clear. It ends with “-wáan,” which means “the reason for which something is done.

Pattern Practice

Complete the following sentences by adding the appropriate ending to the Láadan word that follows the sentence.

Example:

Bíi ril sháad be buzhedi mazhenan wa.

“He’s going to the con by car.” [Or “She’s going,” or “It’s going.”]

1. Bíi ril sháad be buzhedi _________ wa. [by boat; boat — esh]

2. Bíi ril sháad be buzhedi _________ wa. [by train; train — memazh]

3. Bíi ril sháad be buzhedi _________ wa. [by plane; plane — zhazh]


< Lesson Four – Asking Questions Table of Contents Lesson Six – Talking About Going To The Con >

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